Repository of Research and Investigative Information

Repository of Research and Investigative Information

Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences

Sulfur Mustard-Induced Ocular Injuries: Update on Mechanisms and Management

(2017) Sulfur Mustard-Induced Ocular Injuries: Update on Mechanisms and Management. Current Pharmaceutical Design. pp. 1589-1597. ISSN 1381-6128

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Sulfur mustard (SM; mustard gas) is a classic chemical warfare agent that has been used in several wars and is still a potential threat especially in the Middle-East region. Victims experience acute symptoms in air-exposed organs including skin, respiratory tract and the eyes. Survivors of the acute stage might develop chronic or delayed-onset complications in the exposed organs. The exact mechanism(s) of SM-induced tissue damage is still unknown, however DNA alkylation and oxidative damage are the most relevant mechanisms. Eye is the most sensitive organ to the SM vapor and ocular symptoms usually precede other manifestations. Ocular findings including blepharitis, dry eye disease, corneal vascularization, persistent epithelial defects, limbal ischemia, limbal stem cell deficiency, corneal thinning, corneal opacity and corneal innervation abnormalities have been reported several years after SM exposure. In this review, mechanisms of acute and chronic/delayed ocular manifestations of SM and their current management and potential future therapies have been discussed. We have also included recent advances in amniotic membrane transplantation, cultivated stem cell transplantation and anti-angiogenic therapies which might be considered as therapeutic options in SM-induced ocular damage in the future.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Sulfur mustard eye mustard gas keratopathy stem cell transplantation chronic and delayed-onset keratopathy mesenchymal stem-cells corneal epithelial defects placebo-controlled trial amniotic membrane transplantation randomized controlled-trial chemical warfare agents fine-needle diathermy tumor-necrosis-factor sardasht-iran cohort long-term outcomes Pharmacology & Pharmacy
Page Range: pp. 1589-1597
Journal or Publication Title: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Journal Index: ISI
Volume: 23
Number: 11
Identification Number:
ISSN: 1381-6128
Depositing User: مهندس مهدی شریفی

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