Repository of Research and Investigative Information

Repository of Research and Investigative Information

Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences

CRISPR-Based Diagnosis of Infectious and Noninfectious Diseases

(2020) CRISPR-Based Diagnosis of Infectious and Noninfectious Diseases. Biological Procedures Online. p. 14.

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Interest in CRISPR technology, an instrumental component of prokaryotic adaptive immunity which enables prokaryotes to detect any foreign DNA and then destroy it, has gained popularity among members of the scientific community. This is due to CRISPR's remarkable gene editing and cleaving abilities. While the application of CRISPR in human genome editing and diagnosis needs to be researched more fully, and any potential side effects or ambiguities resolved, CRISPR has already shown its capacity in an astonishing variety of applications related to genome editing and genetic engineering. One of its most currently relevant applications is in diagnosis of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Since its initial discovery, 6 types and 22 subtypes of CRISPR systems have been discovered and explored. Diagnostic CRISPR systems are most often derived from types II, V, and VI. Different types of CRISPR-Cas systems which have been identified in different microorganisms can target DNA (e.g. Cas9 and Cas12 enzymes) or RNA (e.g. Cas13 enzyme). Viral, bacterial, and non-infectious diseases such as cancer can all be diagnosed using the cleavage activity of CRISPR enzymes from the aforementioned types. Diagnostic tests using Cas12 and Cas13 enzymes have already been developed for detection of the emerging SARS-CoV-2 virus. Additionally, CRISPR diagnostic tests can be performed using simple reagents and paper-based lateral flow assays, which can potentially reduce laboratory and patient costs significantly. In this review, the classification of CRISPR-Cas systems as well as the basis of the CRISPR/Cas mechanisms of action will be presented. The application of these systems in medical diagnostics with emphasis on the diagnosis of COVID-19 will be discussed.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: CRISPR-Cas COVID-19 Diagnostic test SHERLOCK DETECTR Single guide RNA (sgRNA) nucleic-acid detection escherichia-coli rna cleavage classification evolution dna helicase target identification interference Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Page Range: p. 14
Journal or Publication Title: Biological Procedures Online
Journal Index: ISI
Volume: 22
Number: 1
Identification Number:
Depositing User: مهندس مهدی شریفی

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