Repository of Research and Investigative Information

Repository of Research and Investigative Information

Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences

Sulfur mustard toxicity: History, chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics

(2011) Sulfur mustard toxicity: History, chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. pp. 384-403. ISSN 1040-8444

[img] Text
Sulfur mustard toxicity History, chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics.pdf

Download (1MB)

Official URL:


Sulfur mustard (SM) and similar bifunctional agents have been used as chemical weapons for almost 100 years. Victims of high-dose exposure, both combatants and civilians, may die within hours or weeks, but low-dose exposure causes both acute injury to the eyes, skin, respiratory tract and other parts of the body, and chronic sequelae in these organs are often debilitating and have a serious impact on quality of life. Ever since they were first used in warfare in 1917, SM and other mustard agents have been the subjects of intensive research, and their chemistry, pharmacokinetics and mechanisms of toxic action are now fairly well understood. In the present article we review this knowledge and relate the molecular-biological basis of SM toxicity, as far as it has been elucidated, to the pathological effects on exposure victims.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Chemical weapon mechanism molecular sulfur mustard toxicity 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide human epidermal-keratinocytes chinese-hamster cells athymic nude-mice cultured human keratinocytes mapk/ap-1 signaling pathway colony-stimulating factor airway epithelial-cells nitric-oxide synthase necrosis-factor-alpha Toxicology
Page Range: pp. 384-403
Journal or Publication Title: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Journal Index: ISI
Volume: 41
Number: 5
Identification Number:
ISSN: 1040-8444
Depositing User: مهندس مهدی شریفی

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item